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              建筑新規嚴控“送面積”
                  點擊數:666         日期:2014-8-22
              新版《建筑工程建筑面積計算規范》已從上個月起正式實施。送飄窗、送露臺、送地下室等開發商熱衷的營銷法寶,或將就此失去打“擦邊球”的操作空間,“送面積”做法面臨叫停。
              新版《建筑工程建筑面積計算規范》(以下簡稱《規范》)已從上個月起正式實施。送飄窗、送露臺、送地下室等開發商熱衷的營銷法寶,或將就此失去打“擦邊球”的操作空間,“送面積”等創新的戶型設計面臨嚴格限制。
              “舊版《規范》有些含糊、界限不清晰的地方,存在可利用的漏洞,這次更明確、更合理了。”7月29日,北京市建設工程造價管理處人士陳國立接受媒體采訪時表示:“舊版《規范》執行的時間比較長,現實中很多的設計做法、功能出現了變化,也有必要修訂。”
              飄窗、陽臺更規范
              我們常說的買房“送面積”,是指利用設計規范,設計出既可供業主利用,又不計入銷售面積或只計一半面積的空間,以提高得房率。開發商設計出贈送空間,工程造價并不會減少,還變相增加了樓盤的容積率,實際上是擠占了公共空間的面積,居住體驗會打折扣,但這些方式受到市場的青睞,盡管許多時候“贈送”面積已經攤到房價里。
              其中,開發商最常“送”的面積便是舊版《規范》不算面積的飄窗,有的甚至被做成假飄窗,業主裝修時可以將窗臺打掉變成房間面積。
              因而新版《規范》明確要求,窗臺與室內樓地面高差在0.45米以下、結構凈高在2.1米及以上的凸(飄)窗,應按其圍護結構外圍水平面積計算1/2面積。樓盤層高普遍2.9米左右,凈高為2.7米左右,這樣飄窗離地面至少要0.6米,不然算一半面積。
              對于舊版《規范》規定只算一半面積的陽臺,新版《規范》也更加細化。在主體結構內的陽臺(凹陽臺),按其結構外圍水平面積計算全面積;在主體結構外的陽臺(凸陽臺),按其結構底板水平投影面積計算1/2面積。過去不算面積的雙層挑高陽臺,現在至少算一半面積。
              地下室、露臺難再“送”
              而在花園洋房、排屋別墅常見的“贈送”地下室、采光井做法中,業界也一般不計算面積。按照2005年出臺的舊版《規范》,地下室、半地下室有計算建筑面積的規定,但地下室的建筑面積不計入容積率。
              而按照新版《規范》,地下室、半地下室按其結構外圍水平面積計算,結構層高在2.2米及以上的,應計算全面積;結構層高在2.2米以下的,應計算1/2面積。同時,有頂蓋的采光井應按一層計算面積,結構凈高在2.1米及以上的,應計算全面積;結構凈高在2.1米以下的,應計算1/2面積。
              此次《規范》還明確提出,對于建筑物內的設備層、管道層、避難層等有結構層的樓層,結構層高在2.2米及以上的,應計算全面積,在2.2米以下的計算1/2面積。
              打擦邊球的還有露臺。“設計時不封閉的露臺不算建筑面積,但水暖電都預留好了,業主自己封裝一下就是個大陽臺,可多出10~20平方米的使用面積。不少開發商的住宅設計都有這么干,每層每家一個露臺。”業內人士透露說。
              對此,新版《規范》也做出了修改和約束:增加了建筑物架空層的面積計算規定,取消了深基礎架空層;取消了有永久性頂蓋的面積計算規定,增加了無圍護結構有圍護設施的面積計算規定;修訂落地櫥窗、門斗、挑廊、走廊、檐廊的面積計算規定;刪除了原室外樓梯強調的有永久性頂蓋的面積計算要求;修訂了外保溫層的面積計算規定;增加了門廊的面積計算規定。
              計算面積精細化
              市面上“贈”面積的戶型集中于中小戶型,為了提高得房率,一些開發商甚至把89平方米的商品房做出了“3+1”戶型。新版《規范》對過去“贈送”的面積空間給出細致的定義和計算規范,這為即將審批戶型和入市的新項目加大了精細化設計難度。
              據了解,新版《規范》的實施,如果是常見的“N+1”戶型,將增加套內建筑面積和公攤面積,進而影響容積率和工程造價。由于現在已經可以從新版《規范》里找到出處和核算方式,所以現階段的影響在于如何根據工程情況、建筑用途合理計算建筑面積、公攤面積。
              根據介紹,7月前已報審規劃審批的項目,仍按舊版《規范》執行,短期內新版《規范》對住房供應市場沒有影響。另外,新版《規范》對不同城市的影響也不盡一致。如廣州、上海等地2011年均出臺了地方的建筑面積計算方法,這些標準對開發商的面積“贈送”做法已做出了嚴格的限制。
              而開發企業對小戶型的設計“追求”源于2006年出臺的“70/90政策”,該政策要求2006年6月1日以后新審批、新開工的商品住房項目,必須建設70%以上套型建筑面積90平方米以下的住房。
              “90平方米的面積設定當時是經過初步計算的,沒想到會有各種形式的面積空間‘贈送’。”業內人士分析認為,當時的設定不夠嚴謹,只有一個戶型面積上限,多層、高層、超高層的公攤面積計算下來并不一樣。而攤到高層、超高層,有的戶型就可能損失10~20平方米的面積。一些開發商為了戶型本身的合理性,或者更好地銷售,讓設計師利用規則漏洞采取了很多“偷”面積的手段。“而新版《規范》有助于更好地把控產品設計,以前允許打‘擦邊球’,現在就不行了。”業內人士說。
              上一條信息:中國城鎮化健康發展基本要求      下一條信息:在新型城鎮化建設中增加公共產品有效供給
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