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              中美BIM標準“和而不同”
                  點擊數:1027         日期:2014-8-22
              “BIM在中國的起步雖然相對于美國較晚,但是發展速度很快,工程建設體量也很大,我非常期待和看好中國在BIM領域的探索。”近日,美國國家BIM標準項目委員會副主席、buildingSMART國際實施支持小組副主席JeffreyOuellette在參加由中國建筑標準設計研究院舉辦的“中美國家BIM標準研討沙龍”時表示,美國國家BIM標準NBIMS第三版目前已經進入征求意見與投票的階段,希望發布后不僅能夠推動美國BIM的發展,也能適應并滿足全球BIM市場的需要。
              新版NBIMS看什么?
              據了解,美國國家BIM標準NBIMS是美國乃至全世界較為先進的BIM國家標準,該標準第一版問世于2007年。而自第二版開始,該標準采用了開放投稿、民主投票的新方式決定標準內容,因此也被稱為是第一份基于共識的BIM標準。
              “第三版美國BIM國家標準除了繼承前兩版的內容和編制方式,還在此基礎上根據實踐發展情況增加并細化了一部分模塊內容,以便更有效地促進BIM應用的落地。”JeffreyOuellette介紹到,新版NBIMS由綜述、參考標準、信息交流、操作文件以及定義表幾部分組成。而其中最為引人注目的亮點就是在標準中引入了二維CAD美國國家標準。
              “雖然BIM是行業未來的發展趨勢,但是不可否認二維圖紙在實際應用中依然有很高的需求。因此這次我們將2D標準也加入進來,形成對BIM的良好補充。”他認為,BIM不意味著排斥平面數據,以BIM為核心,兼容包括CAD在內的多種數據格式應該是未來BIM軟件所具有的功能。
              而在操作文件部分,此次新版美國國家標準還新增加了BIM規劃指南業主版、BIM操作合同要求的內容,宗旨在于幫助使用者利用BIM實現最好的結果,使得各個環節能夠合理高效地運轉,同時讓使用者對于標準的一致性產生信心。
              “通過不斷實施標準化的工作流程,我們可以建立關于效率和效令的數據庫,有助于達到經濟效益最大化、浪費最小化的目的”。
              由于BIM所倡導的是建筑全生命周期的管理,因而如何將參與各方有效協調起來成為應用的關鍵。對此,JeffreyOuellette比較推崇整合交付的模式。
              據JeffreyOuellette介紹,整合交付和傳統方式最大的不同在于,項目中所涉及的各個合同都根據統一的標準來做,能夠相互協調。因為這種整合,參與各方等于都綁在一起,風險利益共擔,這也讓大家更有動力積極地互通信息,合力將項目做好。“以往在美國施工方都是費用最高的一方,因為在傳統的施工模式下其所承擔的風險最大。而采用整合交付的情況下,大家通過前期共同研究能夠減輕很大一部分風險,從商業模式上來說也將經濟利益重新進行了分配,因此對于整個行業來說是很大的變革”。
              標桿項目意義大
              相較于美國,我國BIM國家標準的制定目的雖然也同樣是為了促進建筑行業的轉型升級,但政府對于整個行業的把控力度和美國存在較大差別。
              “一方面,目前很多大項目都在應用BIM相關的信息化技術,這就推動政府要快速把國家級標準編制出來。另一方面,由于標準出臺后有著很強的實施層面的因素。因此對于編制單位來說,除了要提供先進理念,還需要把一些優秀的實踐成果和實踐方式加入進去,才能夠形成一個比較完善的國家標準。”中國建筑標準設計研究院BIM建筑設計研究所所長魏來認為,與美國市場主導下的BIM標準發展不同,我國BIM國家標準的制定中政府起到了絕對的主導作用。
              然而,無論是中國還是美國,當前BIM在市場推廣時面臨的最大難題還是如何讓客戶信服BIM所能帶來的效益提升。
              “比起數據展示,我更傾向于用實際案例來向整個行業證明BIM的價值。”魏來認為,對于中國這種幅員遼闊、情況復雜的國家來說,標桿性項目的建設對于帶動整個行業應用BIM有著很強的示范作用,比單純的數據統計更有說服力。
              他同時也提醒,雖然BIM無疑將給行業的發展帶來眾多益處,但是BIM的應用過程實際上是整個社會生產關系的改變,涉及到方方面面的經濟利益,如果采用一刀切的強制方式反而會給BIM的推廣帶來很多阻力,因此在當前的發展還是應該以政府引導為主。
              上一條信息:在新型城鎮化建設中增加公共產品有效供給      下一條信息:設計要回歸建筑基本屬性
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